viernes, diciembre 3, 2021
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Década 2021-2030: Ciencia Oceánica para el Desarrollo. Cubren más del 70 % del globo, pero explorados menos del 5 %

Hay casi 3.000 millones de personas que dependen de la biodiversidad marina y costera para su subsistencia. Foto: UNESCO.

PERÚ BICENTENARIO

Las Naciones Unidas proclamaron la Década de la Ciencia Oceánica para el Desarrollo Sostenible (2021-2030) para apoyar los esfuerzos para revertir el ciclo de deterioro de la salud oceánica y reunir a las partes interesadas de los océanos en todo el mundo detrás de un marco común que asegurará que la ciencia oceánica pueda ayudar plenamente a los países a crear mejores condiciones para el desarrollo sostenible del océano. 

La ONU explicó que el reino marino es el componente más grande del sistema de la Tierra que estabiliza el clima y apoya la vida en la Tierra y el bienestar humano. Sin embargo, la Primera Evaluación Mundial de los Océanos publicada en 2016 encontró que gran parte del océano ahora está gravemente degradado, con cambios y pérdidas en la estructura, función y beneficios de los sistemas marinos.

Además, según informó Noticias ONU, se proyecta que el impacto de múltiples factores de estrés en el océano aumentará a medida que la población humana crezca hacia los 9 mil millones esperados para el 2050. 

Se necesitan con urgencia estrategias de adaptación y respuestas políticas basadas en la ciencia al cambio global, refirió la ONU.

Aseguró que la comprensión científica de las respuestas del océano a las presiones y las medidas de gestión es fundamental para el desarrollo sostenible. Las observaciones e investigaciones oceánicas también son esenciales para predecir las consecuencias del cambio, la mitigación del diseño y la adaptación de la guía.

Noticias ONU dijo que, según el mandato de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas, la Comisión Oceanográfica Intergubernamental (COI) de la UNESCO coordinará el proceso preparatorio del Decenio e invitará a la comunidad mundial de los océanos a planificar los próximos diez años en ciencia y tecnología oceánicos para entregar, juntos, el océano que necesitamos.

La ONU explicó que el objetivo es movilizar a la comunidad científica, pero también a los políticos, a las empresas y a la sociedad civil en torno a un programa común de investigación y de innovación tecnológica

Una de las prioridades durante esos diez años será “reforzar y diversificar las fuentes de financiación”.

Según informó la ONU, los países dedican a las ciencias oceánicas entre el 0,04 % y el 4 % del dinero invertido en investigación y desarrollo.

Sin embargo, afirmó, hay casi 3.000 millones de personas que dependen de la biodiversidad marina y costera para su subsistencia y los océanos absorben casi un tercio del dióxido de carbono generado por los seres humanos y atenúan así el impacto del calentamiento global.

La Organización de Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO) destaca que pese a la importancia que tiene, la ciencia no ha conseguido evaluar los efectos acumulativos de las actividades humanas en los océanos y sus consecuencias en términos de contaminación, de calentamiento o de acidificación.

La dirección general de la UNESCO solicitó desde el año pasado a todas las partes que se impliquen para “coordinar los esfuerzos de investigación”.

Los océanos cubren más del 70 % del globo, pero apenas hemos explorado menos del 5 %. Es nuestra nueva frontera. Tenemos muchas lagunas de conocimiento sobre los océanos, a pesar de su papel crucial para mantener nuestro planeta seguro y respirable, informó la UNESCO.

Para sondear el océano se necesitan barcos específicos, explotar imágenes de satélite, recurrir a robots submarinos o a vehículos sumergibles, que implican “una inversión importante”.

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