sábado, noviembre 27, 2021
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Lorenzo Farfán, el platero de Cusco que se unió a la gran rebelión de Túpac Amaru II

Investigación ÍTALO SIFUENTES ALEMÁN

PERÚ BICENTENARIO 20/01/2020

Foto: Andina.

La histórica pugna de los caudillos por hacerse de los cargos más dominantes y duraderos, en el Perú ello no ha sido una excepción, pues abundan los casos a lo largo de sus dos siglos de vida republicana e, incluso, los hay registrados desde antes de la guerra por la independencia nacional, como aquel de 1780, año del cual hay más información referida al acto de la ejecución del cacique José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera, Túpac Amaru II, que de los personajes y antecedentes que en el Cusco lo condujeron a rebelarse contra los abusos del virreinato español.

Un documento que aquí por primera vez publicamos, brinda más detalles respecto al caso de unos personajes vinculados a Túpac Amaru II que casi ha pasado desapercibido.

Estos personajes son Lorenzo Farfán de los Godos, un platero de Cusco que en 1780 en complot con el curaca de la población cusqueña de Písac, Bernardo Tambohuacso Pumayali, se sublevó contra las autoridades virreinales en concordancia con la rebelión anticolonial que en esa región encabezaba Túpac Amaru II, líder natural para los indígenas por tratarse de un descendiente directo del último rey inca, Túpac Amaru.

Ambos personajes, junto a los también plateros de Cusco Diego Aguilar, Ildefonso Castillo, Juan de Dios Vera, Eugenio Cárdenas, José Gómez y Ascensio Vergara, fueron descubiertos conspirando contra el imperio y ejecutados en noviembre de 1780 por el delito de ‘lesa Majestad’. Todos ellos fueron condenados a muerte por intentar subvertir el orden imperial e imponerse como gobernantes en esa región el sur peruano, la cual precisamente había sido la capital del Tahuantinsuyo.  

Este hecho histórico se encuentra registrado en el documento “La Verdad Desnuda (1780-1782), el cual forma parte de la Colección Matalinares, custodiada por la Academia de la Historia de Madrid.

El Oidor de Lima

En 1778 Benito de Matalinares ocupaba el alto cargo de Oidor de Lima y fue trasladado a Cusco para presidir el juicio a Túpac Amaru II, a su familia y demás seguidores sublevados, entre ellos su esposa Micaela Bastidas. La gran rebelión debía terminar con este cacique como emperador del Perú, la mayor rebelión de corte indigenista en Hispanoamérica debía concluir con el retorno del imperio del Tahuantinsuyo.

En dicho documento se puede conocer los pujantes liderazgos del curaca Bernardo Tambohuacso Pumayali, y de Lorenzo Farfán de los Godos, este último según testimonio de Miguel Arriaga y Eusebio Balza de Berganza, hermano y sobrino del Corregidor José Arriaga, se le tenía reservado el ostentoso cargo de “rey del Cusco”. Él era tal vez el platero más influyente en el Cusco de finales del siglo XVIII.

Al respeto, en el documento de Matalinares se lee que: “Deducía otro de que Lorenzo Farfán, principal cabeza de la sedición, convicto y confeso, para quien le había destinado la investidura el rey de Cusco (por lo cual sufrió la pena del delito de lesa Majestad) era inmediato pariente del Obispo, y tenía mucha intimidad con él”.

Crueles abusos

El obispo de la ciudad de Cusco era Juan Manuel de Moscoso y Peralta, según este testimonio un pariente del platero Lorenzo Farfán, cuya actuación como parte de la rebelión de Túpac Amaru trajo consigo la ejecución del coronel Antonio Arriaga, quien fue gobernador interino de Tucumán (1777-1778) y desde 1774 ejercía el cargo de Corregidor en la provincia de Tinta (Cusco).

El 4 de noviembre de 1780 Arriera fue capturado en Tungasuca, poblado de Tinta, y seis días después colgado por los indígenas declarados víctimas de crueles abusos al no pagar sus impuestos a la corona española. Estos territorios estaban bajo la autoridad de José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera, Túpac Amaru II, un hombre de solvencia económica.

Al funcionario Arriera, su cargo de cobrador de impuestos lo convirtió en una de las personas más rechazadas por los peruanos de esa región. Ese día 4 de noviembre se celebraba con una comida el onomástico el rey Carlos III, y los seguidores de Túpac Amaru II lo capturaron y atormentaron hasta que el día 10 decidieron ahorcarlo.

El documento del Oidor Matalinares se basa en uno que fue enviado de Lima a Madrid por Miguel Arriaga y Eusebio Balza de Berganza, hermano y sobrino de dicho Corregidor español ajusticiado.   

Enviado imperial  

El 17 de noviembre de 1780 fue ejecutado el curaca Bernardo Tambohuacso Pumayali. El 6 de abril del año siguiente Túpac Amaru fue capturado y el 18 de mayo ejecutado en la Plaza Mayor de Cusco junto a 8 de sus principales colaboradores.

El rey Carlos III había enviado al visitador José Antonio de Areche para que se encargue del interrogatorio y ejecución, pero no pudo lograr que el mayor líder pro independencia peruana y de esta parte de América delatara al resto de sus aliados, entre los cuales había decenas de mestizos como él.  

Fue decapitado y descuartizado, y sus miembros enviados a diversas partes del Perú. Su acción libertaria dio inicio a movimientos emancipadores en los territorios gobernados por el imperio español.

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