sábado, noviembre 27, 2021
InicioCiencia y TecnologíaCinco científicos peruanos que el mundo admira

Cinco científicos peruanos que el mundo admira

Pedro Paulet, uno de los padres de la aeronáutica. | Fuente: www.perushimpo.com

A lo largo de los años, nuestros científicos han destacado en el ámbito internacional por sus investigaciones y logros académicos. Conócelos en este recuento:

Pedro Paulet. Nacido en Arequipa en 1874, este ingeniero peruano fue un pionero del espacio. Fue la primera persona en construir un motor de propulsión a combustible líquido para un cohete y es considerado uno de los padres de la aeronáutica. La carrera de Paulet comenzó a los 19 años, cuando recibió una beca del gobierno para estudiar ingeniería en La Sorbona (París). Se dice que se inspiró en la manera en que se desplazan los calamares en el agua para diseñar su sistema de propulsión a chorro, que se utiliza en los cohetes actuales. En su honor, el 2 de julio se festeja el Día Nacional de la Aeronáutica.

Pedro Ruiz Gallo. El chiclayano, que nació en 1838, tuvo una labor destacada como militar e inventor. Junto con Paulet es considerado uno de los principales precursores de la aeronáutica moderna gracias a los estudios en los que planteaba la construcción de una máquina voladora movida por propulsión mecánica que “permitiría al hombre conquistar los cielos”. Es además el creador y constructor de “El gran reloj de Lima”, el monumental reloj que le tomó cuatro años concluir y que fue tomado como botín durante la guerra con Chile.

Santiago Antúnez de Mayolo. Este ancashino nacido en 1887 propuso la existencia de los neutrones ocho años antes de su descubrimiento, que se le atribuye al físico ingles James Chadwick, quien lo llamó “neutrón”, descubrimiento por el que ganó el premio Nobel de Física en 1935. En 1932, Antúnez de Mayolo publicó su estudio Los Tres Elementos Constitutivos de la Materia, en el cual predijo la existencia del positrón, poco antes de que lo demostrara experimentalmente el físico norteamericano Carl David Anderson, quien ganó el premio Nobel de Física en 1936. Antúnez de Mayolo además hizo grandes aportes en materia eléctrica y fue colaborador fundamental en las construcción de las tres hidroeléctricas más grandes de nuestro país.

Daniel Alcides Carrión. Nacido en Cerro de Pasco en 1857, el “mártir de la medicina peruana” basó sus principales estudios en la enfermedad causada por la bacteria Bartonella bacilliformis, llamada “verruga peruana”. Para analizar los efectos de esta enfermedad y desarrollar una cura, Carrión se inoculó sangre contaminada con esta bacteria y escribió su propia historia clínica. Falleció el 5 de octubre de 1885. Ese día se conmemora el “Día de la medicina peruana”.

Federico Villareal Villareal. Este lambayecano fue matemático, ingeniero, físico y políglota. Realizó descubrimientos e investigaciones de gran importancia en el campo de las matemáticas. Siendo profesor de secundaria en su pueblo natal Túcume, con sólo 23 años y sin haber estudiado en una universidad, Villarreal descubrió en 1873 el método para elevar un polinomio cualquiera a una potencia cualquiera. Por haberse dedicado a un campo poco común en la ciencia peruana como es la matemática, Villarreal es llamado “el Newton peruano”.

Esta es solo una muestra de que la ciencia peruana tiene el poder de impactar al mundo. La labor de CIENCIACTIVA, organización pública que brinda fondos para investigadores peruanos, cumple un rol fundamental en el desarrollo de la ciencia en el Perú. Así, muchos peruanos y peruanas que trabajan en tecnología e innovación nos seguirán sorprendiendo en el futuro.

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